The Internet of Things refers to the concept of an increasing number of electronic devices connected to the internet and other connected devices. The IoT is therefore a vast network of connected devices that are able to exchange data and thus communicate with each other. Due to the fact that the IoT has the potential to make human influence in certain processes redundant, it is one of the most important pillars of automation. Connected devices can be used almost everywhere.

By the end of 2018, around 22 billion devices were already connected to the IoT. This number is expected to rise to around 50 billion by 2030. xxii5 Some of these devices can only collect and transmit data (sensors), some can also receive data and perform an action on it (actuators) and some can do both.