Microsoft SQL Server is an RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) that supports various business intelligence, transaction processing and analysis in different enterprise environments. It is on the list of the three leading database technologies on the market, which are Db2 from IBM and Oracle Database includes. The database was created in the standard SQL programming language that IT professionals and database administrators use to manage databases and query the data in those databases. Microsoft has added several proprietary programming extensions to the server via Transact-SQL to enhance its functions.  

How does the SQL Server work?  

The SQL Server follows the data structure used for other RDBMS technologies that are based on a table-based structure in a row. This allows the primary database to connect to different data items located in different tables. The configuration means you don't have to store data in multiple places, so you can access it easily.  

In addition, by using the relational model, Microsoft is able to provide referential integrity and improve data accuracy. Controls known as ACID functions were also introduced to guarantee the reliability of database transactions. These functions are based on consistency, isolation, atomicity and durability. 

The entire process on the SQL Server is managed by the SQL Server Database Engine, which controls data processing storage and security. There is also a relational module for processing queries and commands, and a storage module that manages pages, indexes, tables, transactions, data buffers and database files. The core module also enables the execution of views, triggers and stored procedures.  

Underneath the module is the SQL Server operating system (SQLOS), which handles other lower-level functions, such as I/O management and storage, data locking and work scheduling to ensure that updates do not overlap. A network interface layer is located above the module. The interface uses the Microsoft Tabular Data Stream Protocol to facilitate interaction with the database server. 

IT developers and DBAs (database administrators) write T-SQL statements, for example to create and modify database structures, implement security options, edit and back up data. Analysis tools, data management and Business intelligence tools are integrated into SQL Server. In the Microsoft SQL Server 2016 edition, this also included Machine Learning services. There are also SQL Server Analysis Services, which analyse processes for data visualisation and business intelligence. Other tools are SQL Server Reporting Services and SQL Server Integration Services for BI reporting and data management, respectively.