What is a model?

A model is a representation of a certain area or object in simplified form. They can be based on an already existing real object or they can be chosen or constructed completely freely and abstractly.

A model is based on the freedom of the creator and his or her desire for representation, but also follows clear basic rules. Three factors are defined that apply to a model:

  • Factor 1 refers to the Illustration representing the model. This is related to a natural or artificial original. This means that a model reproduces something that already exists.
  • Factor 2 describes the Nature of a model. It generally refers only to the relevant facts of an original and thus not to all existing attributes. Which facts must be considered relevant is determined by the creator of the model.
  • Factor 3 denotes the Sense of a model. In general, it cannot be clearly assigned, but rather serves a substitution function. They serve as a simplified illustration and thereby refer to essential W-questions, for whom, when or also for what something is to serve or be used.

How does modelling work?

Model building describes the process in which a model is created. In this process, relevant data is collected, which is later incorporated into the model, and the exact structure is determined. Depending on the type of model, it may well be that a longer observation period must precede this in order to be able to achieve suitable results. These observation periods are primarily necessary whenever a model also relies on statistical values and analyses.

The idea of modelling aims at the Creation of a clear model that can be used to find solutions to problems more easily..

Types of models

The term "model" is used in many areas and fields and often describes very different things. Typical areas of application are science, mathematics and computer science.


In science, a model is increasingly used to explain known topics. Facts or known objects serve as a basis and are shown in a model for simplified explanation.


In mathematics, a model is often defined by the use of formulae. It represents the mathematical logic of various topics that are to be illustrated. How far this spectrum is extended, i.e. how many mathematical topics are included in the model, depends on the creator himself. All models serve a clear purpose in mathematics and that is to prove a certain mathematical logic.

Computer Science

A model in computer science is increasingly used for a representation of a section of reality in order to determine new approaches to solutions for existing problems. Various sources of information are used and processed for this purpose. These model structures are also known as domain models. They are used to create new software or architectures that can be used in computer science or other scientific fields.